Tag Archives: Ancient Macedonia

A Global Community of Academics Rejects Pseudomacedonism in a Letter to President Obama

Letter to President Barack Obama

May 18, 2009

The Honorable Barack Obama

President, United States of America

White House

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20500

Dear President Obama,

We, the undersigned scholars of Graeco-Roman antiquity, respectfully request that you intervene to clean up some of the historical debris left in southeast Europe by the previous U.S. administration.

On November 4, 2004, two days after the re-election of President George W. Bush, his administration unilaterally recognized the “Republic of Macedonia.” This action not only abrogated geographic and historic fact, but it also has unleashed a dangerous epidemic of historical revisionism, of which the most obvious symptom is the misappropriation by the government in Skopje of the most famous of Macedonians, Alexander the Great.

We believe that this silliness has gone too far, and that the U.S.A. has no business in supporting the subversion of history. Let us review facts. (The documentation for these facts [here in boldface] can be found attached and at: http://macedonia-evidence.org/documentation.html)

The land in question, with its modern capital at Skopje, was called Paionia in antiquity. Mts. Barnous and Orbelos (which form today the northern limits of Greece) provide a natural barrier that separated, and separates, Macedonia from its northern neighbor. The only real connection is along the Axios/Vardar River and even this valley “does not form a line of communication because it is divided by gorges.”

While it is true that the Paionians were subdued by Philip II, father of Alexander, in 358 B.C. they were not Macedonians and did not live in Macedonia. Likewise, for example, the Egyptians, who were subdued by Alexander, may have been ruled by Macedonians, including the famous Cleopatra, but they were never Macedonians themselves, and Egypt was never called Macedonia.

Rather, Macedonia and Macedonian Greeks have been located for at least 2,500 years just where the modern Greek province of Macedonia is. Exactly this same relationship is true for Attica and Athenian Greeks, Argos and Argive Greeks, Corinth and Corinthian Greeks, etc.

We do not understand how the modern inhabitants of ancient Paionia, who speak Slavic – a language introduced into the Balkans about a millennium after the death of Alexander – can claim him as their national hero. Alexander the Great was thoroughly and indisputably Greek. His great-great-great grandfather, Alexander I, competed in the Olympic Games where participation was limited to Greeks.

Even before Alexander I, the Macedonians traced their ancestry to Argos, and many of their kings used the head of Herakles – the quintessential Greek hero – on their coins.

Euripides – who died and was buried in Macedonia– wrote his play Archelaos in honor of the great-uncle of Alexander, and in Greek. While in Macedonia, Euripides also wrote the Bacchai, again in Greek. Presumably the Macedonian audience could understand what he wrote and what they heard.

Alexander’s father, Philip, won several equestrian victories at Olympia and Delphi, the two most Hellenic of all the sanctuaries in ancient Greece where non-Greeks were not allowed to compete. Even more significantly, Philip was appointed to conduct the Pythian Games at Delphi in 346 B.C. In other words, Alexander the Great’s father and his ancestors were thoroughly Greek. Greek was the language used by Demosthenes and his delegation from Athens when they paid visits to Philip, also in 346 B.C. Another northern Greek, Aristotle, went off to study for nearly 20 years in the Academy of Plato. Aristotle subsequently returned to Macedonia and became the tutor of Alexander III. They used Greek in their classroom which can still be seen near Naoussa in Macedonia.

Alexander carried with him throughout his conquests Aristotle’s edition of Homer’s Iliad. Alexander also spread Greek language and culture throughout his empire, founding cities and establishing centers of learning. Hence inscriptions concerning such typical Greek institutions as the gymnasium are found as far away as Afghanistan. They are all written in Greek.

The questions follow: Why was Greek the lingua franca all over Alexander’s empire if he was a “Macedonian”? Why was the New Testament, for example, written in Greek?

The answers are clear: Alexander the Great was Greek, not Slavic, and Slavs and their language were nowhere near Alexander or his homeland until 1000 years later. This brings us back to the geographic area known in antiquity as Paionia. Why would the people who live there now call themselves Macedonians and their land Macedonia? Why would they abduct a completely Greek figure and make him their national hero?

The ancient Paionians may or may not have been Greek, but they certainly became Greekish, and they were never Slavs. They were also not Macedonians. Ancient Paionia was a part of the Macedonian Empire. So were Ionia and Syria and Palestine and Egypt and Mesopotamia and Babylonia and Bactria and many more. They may thus have become “Macedonian” temporarily, but none was ever “Macedonia”. The theft of Philip and Alexander by a land that was never Macedonia cannot be justified.

The traditions of ancient Paionia could be adopted by the current residents of that geographical area with considerable justification. But the extension of the geographic term “Macedonia” to cover southern Yugoslavia cannot. Even in the late 19th century, this misuse implied unhealthy territorial aspirations.

The same motivation is to be seen in school maps that show the pseudo-greater Macedonia, stretching from Skopje to Mt. Olympus and labeled in Slavic. The same map and its claims are in calendars, bumper stickers, bank notes, etc., that have been circulating in the new state ever since it declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. Why would a poor land-locked new state attempt such historical nonsense? Why would it brazenly mock and provoke its neighbor?

However one might like to characterize such behavior, it is clearly not a force for historical accuracy, nor for stability in the Balkans. It is sad that the United States of America has abetted and encouraged such behavior.

We call upon you, Mr. President, to help – in whatever ways you deem appropriate – the government in Skopje to understand that it cannot build a national identity at the expense of historic truth. Our common international society cannot survive when history is ignored, much less when history is fabricated.



Harry C. Avery, Professor of Classics, University of Pittsburgh (USA)

Dr. Dirk Backendorf. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz (Germany)

Elizabeth C. Banks, Associate Professor of Classics (ret.), University of Kansas (USA)

Luigi Beschi, professore emerito di Archeologia Classica, Università di Firenze (Italy)

Josine H. Blok, professor of Ancient History and Classical Civilization, Utrecht University (The Netherlands)

Alan Boegehold, Emeritus Professor of Classics, Brown University (USA)

Efrosyni Boutsikas, Lecturer of Classical Archaeology, University of Kent (UK)

Keith Bradley, Eli J. and Helen Shaheen Professor of Classics, Concurrent Professor of History, University of Notre Dame (USA)

Stanley M. Burstein, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Los Angeles (USA)

Francis Cairns, Professor of Classical Languages, The Florida State University (USA)

John McK. Camp II, Agora Excavations and Professor of Archaeology, ASCSA, Athens (Greece)

Paul Cartledge, A.G. Leventis Professor of Greek Culture, University of Cambridge (UK)

Paavo Castrén, Professor of Classical Philology Emeritus, University of Helsinki (Finland)

William Cavanagh, Professor of Aegean Prehistory, University of Nottingham (UK)

Angelos Chaniotis, Professor, Senior Research Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford (UK)

Paul Christesen, Professor of Ancient Greek History, Dartmouth College (USA)

Ada Cohen, Associate Professor of Art History, Dartmouth College (USA)

Randall M. Colaizzi, Lecturer in Classical Studies, University of Massachusetts-Boston (USA)

Kathleen M. Coleman, Professor of Latin, Harvard University (USA)

Michael B. Cosmopoulos, Ph.D., Professor and Endowed Chair in Greek Archaeology, University of Missouri-St. Louis (USA)

Kevin F. Daly, Assistant Professor of Classics, Bucknell University (USA)

Wolfgang Decker, Professor emeritus of sport history, Deutsche Sporthochschule, Köln (Germany)

Luc Deitz, Ausserplanmässiger Professor of Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin, University of Trier (Germany), and Curator of manuscripts and rare books, National Library of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

Michael Dewar, Professor of Classics, University of Toronto (Canada)

John D. Dillery, Associate Professor of Classics, University of Virginia (USA)

Sheila Dillon, Associate Professor, Depts. of Art, Art History & Visual Studies and Classical Studies, Duke University (USA)

Douglas Domingo-Forasté, Professor of Classics, California State University, Long Beach (USA)

Pierre Ducrey, professeur honoraire, Université de Lausanne (Switzerland)

Roger Dunkle, Professor of Classics Emeritus, Brooklyn College, City University of New York (USA)

Michael M. Eisman, Associate Professor Ancient History and Classical Archaeology, Department of History, Temple University (USA)

Mostafa El-Abbadi, Professor Emeritus, University of Alexandria (Egypt)

R. Malcolm Errington, Professor für Alte Geschichte (Emeritus) Philipps-Universität, Marburg (Germany)

Panagiotis Faklaris, Assistant Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Denis Feeney, Giger Professor of Latin, Princeton University (USA)

Elizabeth A. Fisher, Professor of Classics and Art History, Randolph-Macon College (USA)

Nick Fisher, Professor of Ancient History, Cardiff University (UK)

R. Leon Fitts, Asbury J Clarke Professor of Classical Studies, Emeritus, FSA, Scot., Dickinson Colllege (USA)

John M. Fossey FRSC, FSA, Emeritus Professor of Art History (and Archaeology), McGill Univertsity, Montreal, and Curator of Archaeology, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Canada)

Robin Lane Fox, University Reader in Ancient History, New College, Oxford (UK)

Rainer Friedrich, Professor of Classics Emeritus, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. (Canada)

Heide Froning, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Marburg (Germany)

Peter Funke, Professor of Ancient History, University of Muenster (Germany)

Traianos Gagos, Professor of Greek and Papyrology, University of Michigan (USA)

Robert Garland, Roy D. and Margaret B. Wooster Professor of the Classics, Colgate University, Hamilton NY (USA)

Douglas E. Gerber, Professor Emeritus of Classical Studies, University of Western Ontario (Canada)

Hans R. Goette, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Giessen (Germany); German Archaeological Institute, Berlin (Germany)

Sander M. Goldberg, Professor of Classics, UCLA (USA)

Erich S. Gruen, Gladys Rehard Wood Professor of History and Classics, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Christian Habicht, Professor of Ancient History, Emeritus, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (USA)

Donald C. Haggis, Nicholas A. Cassas Term Professor of Greek Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

Judith P. Hallett, Professor of Classics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA)

Prof. Paul B. Harvey, Jr. Head, Department of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, The Pennsylvania State University (USA)

Eleni Hasaki, Associate Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Arizona (USA)

Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos, Director, Research Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity, National Research Foundation, Athens (Greece)

Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer, Prof. Dr., Freie Universität Berlin und Antikensammlung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin (Germany)

Steven W. Hirsch, Associate Professor of Classics and History, Tufts University (USA)

Karl-J. Hölkeskamp, Professor of Ancient History, University of Cologne (Germany)

Frank L. Holt, Professor of Ancient History, University of Houston (USA)

Dan Hooley, Professor of Classics, University of Missouri (USA)

Meredith C. Hoppin, Gagliardi Professor of Classical Languages, Williams College, Williamstown, MA (USA)

Caroline M. Houser, Professor of Art History Emerita, Smith College (USA) and Affiliated Professor, University of Washington (USA)

Georgia Kafka, Visiting Professor of Modern Greek Language, Literature and History, University of New Brunswick (Canada)

Anthony Kaldellis, Professor of Greek and Latin, The Ohio State University (USA)

Andromache Karanika, Assistant Professor of Classics, University of California, Irvine (USA)

Robert A. Kaster, Professor of Classics and Kennedy Foundation Professor of Latin, Princeton University (USA)

Vassiliki Kekela, Adjunct Professor of Greek Studies, Classics Department, Hunter College, City University of New York (USA)

Dietmar Kienast, Professor Emeritus of Ancient History, University of Duesseldorf (Germany)

Karl Kilinski II, University Distinguished Teaching Professor, Southern Methodist University (USA)

Dr. Florian Knauss, associate director, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek Muenchen (Germany)

Denis Knoepfler, Professor of Greek Epigraphy and History, Collège de France (Paris)

Ortwin Knorr, Associate Professor of Classics, Willamette University (USA)

Robert B. Koehl, Professor of Archaeology, Department of Classical and Oriental Studies Hunter College, City University of New York (USA)

Georgia Kokkorou-Alevras, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Classical Studies, Brandeis University (USA)

Eric J. Kondratieff, Assistant Professor of Classics and Ancient History, Department of Greek & Roman Classics, Temple University

Haritini Kotsidu, Apl. Prof. Dr. für Klassische Archäologie, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

Lambrini Koutoussaki, Dr., Lecturer of Classical Archaeology, University of Zürich (Switzerland)

David Kovacs, Hugh H. Obear Professor of Classics, University of Virginia (USA)

Peter Krentz, W. R. Grey Professor of Classics and History, Davidson College (USA)

Friedrich Krinzinger, Professor of Classical Archaeology Emeritus, University of Vienna (Austria)

Michael Kumpf, Professor of Classics, Valparaiso University (USA)

Donald G. Kyle, Professor of History, University of Texas at Arlington (USA)

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Helmut Kyrieleis, former president of the German Archaeological Institute, Berlin (Germany)

Gerald V. Lalonde, Benedict Professor of Classics, Grinnell College (USA)

Steven Lattimore, Professor Emeritus of Classics, University of California, Los Angeles (USA)

Francis M. Lazarus, President, University of Dallas (USA)

Mary R. Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities, Emerita, Wellesley College (USA)

Iphigeneia Leventi, Assistant Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Daniel B. Levine, Professor of Classical Studies, University of Arkansas (USA)

Christina Leypold, Dr. phil., Archaeological Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland)

Vayos Liapis, Associate Professor of Greek, Centre d’Études Classiques & Département de Philosophie, Université de Montréal (Canada)

Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Professor of Greek Emeritus, University of Oxford (UK)

Yannis Lolos, Assistant Professor, History, Archaeology, and Anthropology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Stanley Lombardo, Professor of Classics, University of Kansas, USA

Anthony Long, Professor of Classics and Irving G. Stone Professor of Literature, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Julia Lougovaya, Assistant Professor, Department of Classics, Columbia University (USA)

A.D. Macro, Hobart Professor of Classical Languages emeritus, Trinity College (USA)

John Magee, Professor, Department of Classics, Director, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto (Canada)

Dr. Christofilis Maggidis, Associate Professor of Archaeology, Dickinson College (USA)

Jeannette Marchand, Assistant Professor of Classics, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio (USA)

Richard P. Martin, Antony and Isabelle Raubitschek Professor in Classics, Stanford University

Maria Mavroudi, Professor of Byzantine History, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Alexander Mazarakis Ainian, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

James R. McCredie, Sherman Fairchild Professor emeritus; Director, Excavations in Samothrace Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (USA)

James C. McKeown, Professor of Classics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA)

Robert A. Mechikoff, Professor and Life Member of the International Society of Olympic Historians, San Diego State University (USA)

Andreas Mehl, Professor of Ancient History, Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

Harald Mielsch, Professor of Classical Archeology, University of Bonn (Germany)

Stephen G. Miller, Professor of Classical Archaeology Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Phillip Mitsis, A.S. Onassis Professor of Classics and Philosophy, New York University (USA)

Peter Franz Mittag, Professor für Alte Geschichte, Universität zu Köln (Germany)

David Gordon Mitten, James Loeb Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology, Harvard University (USA)

Margaret S. Mook, Associate Professor of Classical Studies, Iowa State University (USA)

Anatole Mori, Associate Professor of Classical Studies, University of Missouri- Columbia (USA)

Jennifer Sheridan Moss, Associate Professor, Wayne State University (USA)

Ioannis Mylonopoulos, Assistant Professor of Greek Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University, New York (USA).

Richard Neudecker, PD of Classical Archaeology, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Rom (Italy)

James M.L. Newhard, Associate Professor of Classics, College of Charleston (USA)

Carole E. Newlands, Professor of Classics, University of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)

John Maxwell O’Brien, Professor of History, Queens College, City University of New York (USA)

James J. O’Hara, Paddison Professor of Latin, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA)

Martin Ostwald, Professor of Classics (ret.), Swarthmore College and Professor of Classical Studies (ret.), University of Pennsylvania (USA)

Olga Palagia, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Vassiliki Panoussi, Associate Professor of Classical Studies, The College of William and Mary (USA)

Maria C. Pantelia, Professor of Classics, University of California, Irvine (USA)

Pantos A.Pantos, Adjunct Faculty, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Thessaly (Greece)

Anthony J. Papalas, Professor of Ancient History, East Carolina University (USA)

Nassos Papalexandrou, Associate Professor, The University of Texas at Austin (USA)

Polyvia Parara, Visiting Assistant Professor of Greek Language and Civilization, Department of Classics, Georgetown University (USA)

Richard W. Parker, Associate Professor of Classics, Brock University (Canada)

Robert Parker, Wykeham Professor of Ancient History, New College, Oxford (UK)

Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi, Associate Professor of Classics, Stanford University (USA)

Jacques Perreault, Professor of Greek archaeology, Université de Montréal, Québec (Canada)

Yanis Pikoulas, Associate Professor of Ancient Greek History, University of Thessaly (Greece)

John Pollini, Professor of Classical Art & Archaeology, University of Southern California (USA)

David Potter, Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Greek and Latin. The University of Michigan (USA)

Robert L. Pounder, Professor Emeritus of Classics, Vassar College (USA)

Nikolaos Poulopoulos, Assistant Professor in History and Chair in Modern Greek Studies, McGill University (Canada)

William H. Race, George L. Paddison Professor of Classics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

John T. Ramsey, Professor of Classics, University of Illinois at Chicago (USA)

Karl Reber, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Lausanne (Switzerland)

Rush Rehm, Professor of Classics and Drama, Stanford University (USA)

Werner Riess, Associate Professor of Classics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

Robert H. Rivkin, Ancient Studies Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA)

Barbara Saylor Rodgers, Professor of Classics, The University of Vermont (USA)

Robert H. Rodgers. Lyman-Roberts Professor of Classical Languages and Literature, University of Vermont (USA)

Nathan Rosenstein, Professor of Ancient History, The Ohio State University (USA)

John C. Rouman, Professor Emeritus of Classics, University of New Hampshire, (USA)

Dr. James Roy, Reader in Greek History (retired), University of Nottingham (UK)

Steven H. Rutledge, Associate Professor of Classics, Department of Classics, University of Maryland, College Park (USA)

Christina A. Salowey, Associate Professor of Classics, Hollins University (USA)

Guy D. R. Sanders, Resident Director of Corinth Excavations, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (Greece)

Theodore Scaltsas, Professor of Ancient Greek Philosophy, University of Edinburgh (UK)

Thomas F. Scanlon, Professor of Classics, University of California, Riverside (USA)

Bernhard Schmaltz, Prof. Dr. Archäologisches Institut der CAU, Kiel (Germany)

Rolf M. Schneider, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität München (Germany)

Peter Scholz, Professor of Ancient History and Culture, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

Christof Schuler, director, Commission for Ancient History and Epigraphy of the German Archaeological Institute, Munich (Germany)

Paul D. Scotton, Assoociate Professor Classical Archaeology and Classics, California State University Long Beach (USA)

Danuta Shanzer, Professor of Classics and Medieval Studies, The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America (USA)

James P. Sickinger, Associate Professor of Classics, Florida State University (USA)

Marilyn B. Skinner 
Professor of Classics, 
University of Arizona (USA)

Niall W. Slater, Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Latin and Greek, Emory University (USA)

Peter M. Smith, Associate Professor of Classics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA)

Dr. Philip J. Smith, Research Associate in Classical Studies, McGill University (Canada)

Susan Kirkpatrick Smith Assistant Professor of Anthropology Kennesaw State University (USA)

Antony Snodgrass, Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology, University of Cambridge (UK)

Theodosia Stefanidou-Tiveriou, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece).

Andrew Stewart, Nicholas C. Petris Professor of Greek Studies, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Oliver Stoll, Univ.-Prof. Dr., Alte Geschichte/ Ancient History,Universität Passau (Germany)

Richard Stoneman, Honorary Fellow, University of Exeter (England)

Ronald Stroud, Klio Distinguished Professor of Classical Languages and Literature Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Sarah Culpepper Stroup, Associate Professor of Classics, University of Washington (USA)

Nancy Sultan, Professor and Director, Greek & Roman Studies, Illinois Wesleyan University (USA)

David W. Tandy, Professor of Classics, University of Tennessee (USA)

James Tatum, Aaron Lawrence Professor of Classics, Dartmouth College

Martha C. Taylor, Associate Professor of Classics, Loyola College in Maryland

Petros Themelis, Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology, Athens (Greece)

Eberhard Thomas, Priv.-Doz. Dr.,Archäologisches Institut der Universität zu Köln (Germany)

Michalis Tiverios, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Michael K. Toumazou, Professor of Classics, Davidson College (USA)

Stephen V. Tracy, Professor of Greek and Latin Emeritus, Ohio State University (USA)

Prof. Dr. Erich Trapp, Austrian Academy of Sciences/Vienna resp. University of Bonn (Germany)

Stephen M. Trzaskoma, Associate Professor of Classics, University of New Hampshire (USA)

Vasiliki Tsamakda, Professor of Christian Archaeology and Byzantine History of Art, University of Mainz (Germany)

Christopher Tuplin, Professor of Ancient History, University of Liverpool (UK)

Gretchen Umholtz, Lecturer, Classics and Art History, University of Massachusetts, Boston (USA)

Panos Valavanis, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Athens (Greece)

Athanassios Vergados, Visiting Assistant Professor of Classics, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA

Christina Vester, Assistant Professor of Classics, University of Waterloo (Canada)

Emmanuel Voutiras, Professor of Classical Archaeology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

Speros Vryonis, Jr., Alexander S. Onassis Professor (Emeritus) of Hellenic Civilization and Culture, New York University (USA)

Michael B. Walbank, Professor Emeritus of Greek, Latin & Ancient History, The University of Calgary (Canada)

Bonna D. Wescoat, Associate Professor, Art History and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, Emory University (USA)

E. Hector Williams, Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of British Columbia (Canada)

Roger J. A. Wilson, Professor of the Archaeology of the Roman Empire, and Director, Centre for the Study of Ancient Sicily, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

Engelbert Winter, Professor for Ancient History, University of Münster (Germany)

Timothy F. Winters, Ph.D. Alumni Assn. Distinguished Professor of Classics, Austin Peay State University (USA)

Michael Zahrnt, Professor für Alte Geschichte, Universität zu Köln (Germany)

Paul Zanker, Professor Emeritus of Classical Studies, University of Munich (Germany)


Slavic Wikipedia Projects About Ancient Macedonia: Their Objective Content

It appears that propaganda from FYROM does not reflects even in Wikipedia projects in Slavic languages. Although it is certain that the teams of authors who worked on them were well aware of the so-called “arguments” which are systematically exported from FYROM, on all of Wikipedia Slavic websites objectivity has been placed forward and sustained.


“Starożytni Macedończycy byli spokrewnieni z Grekami, którzy jednak zaliczali ich do barbarzyńców. Mimo to dopuszczali Macedończyków do igrzysk olimpijskich. W odróżnieniu od większości greckich państw Macedonia była monarchią”.

“Ancient Macedonians were of the same race as Greeks, who once compared them to barbarians. Regardless of that, they allowed Macedonians into the Olympic Games. In comparisons from the majority of Greek states Macedonia was a monarchy”.


“Někteří historikové označují Makedonce za potomky několika různých národů – Frygů, Thráků a Ilyrů – nemajících žádné vazby na Řeky. Avšak většina moderních vědců se kloní k názoru, že Makedonce je třeba považovat za jeden z řeckých kmenů”.

“Few historians consider Macedonians to be descendants of several various people-Brygians, Thracian and Illyrians, having no relations to Greece. Nevertheless, the majority of present-day scholars is inclined to the view that Macedonians should be considered for one of the Greek entities.”



«Греческое» или «эллинское» происхождение древних македонян оспаривается в одностороннем порядке современным государством Македония. Понятия «эллин» и «македонянин» принято различать, подразумевая основание Македонии как отдельного государства мигрировавшими греками.

“Greek”or “Hellenic” ancestry of ancient Macedonians is denied into the one-sided order of today’s modern state of Macedonia. (Although) the terms “Hellene” and “Macedonian” are sometimes different, it is understood that Macedonia is founded as a separate state of migrating Greeks.



“Macedónia zostávala storočia na periférii gréckeho sveta”.

“Macedonia was a backward area on the periphery of Greek world”.

“Miestny jazyk (staroveká macedónčina) bol jedným zo starogréckych jazykov a pravdepodobne pochádzal zo skupiny severozápadných gréckych dialektov”.

“The native language (the ancient Macedonian) was one of the old Greek languages, and by its nature belonged to the group of northwestern Greek dialects”


“Makedonija (od grč. Μακεδονία) je bio naziv antičkog kraljevstva koje se nalazilo na najsevernijem delu antičke Grčke, koje se na zapadu graničilo s Epirom, a na istoku s Trakijom”.

“Macedonia (from Gr. Μακεδονία) was the name of an ancient kingdom which was located at the northernmost part of ancient Greece, which was bordered by Epirus at the west and with Thrace at the East”.

Современите историчари го потврдуваат грчкиот карактер на Древните Македонци

Н. Г. Л. Хамонд

“Останатиот дел на гркоговорниот свет се протегаше од Пелагонија на север до Македонија на југ. Тој беше завземен од неколку племенски држави кои постојано беа во војна против Илирите, Пајонците и Тракијците
. . . . . . . . . . . . според мислењето на градовите-држави овие племенски држави беа заостанати и недостојни за грчкото име, иако говореа дијалекти на грчкиот јазик. ”

N. G. L Hammond – The Genius of Alexander. Page 18

“Хесиод немаше да го забележи овој однос ако не веруваше. веројатно во седмиот век. дека Македонците беа гркоговорен народ. Следниот доказ доаѓа од Персија. На почетокот на шестиот век Персијсците ги опишуваа народите кои плаќаа данок во нивната провинција во Европа, и еден од нив беше “yauna takabara“ што значи “Грци кои носат капа“. Постоеа Грци во градовите-држави и во провинцијата. но тие беа од разни потекла и не се разликуваа со заедничка капа, каусија. Заклучуваме дека Персијанците веруваа дека Македонците беа говорници на грчки јазик. На крај, во подоцнежниот дел на петтиот век грчкиот историчар, Хеланикус, ја посети Македонија и го измени родословието поставувајќи го Македон не за братучед туку за син на Аеолус. така доближувајќи го Македон цврсто во аеолскиот огранок на гркоговорното семејство. Хесиод, Персија и Хеланикус немаа мотиви да прават лажни сведоштва за јазикот на Македонците кои тогаш беа опскурен и не беа моќен народ. Нивните независни сведоштва треба да се сметаат за конечни.“

N. G. L. Hammond. “The Macedonian State”. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1989. pp. 12-15

“Сега изгледа дека Александар бараше од грчките држави јавно и универзално признавање на неговите дарови, и тој го сакаше као самиот да е Грк од семејството Темениди.“

N. G. L Hammond: The Macedonian State: pg 235

“Иако јужните Грци во светот на градовите-држави не беа свесни за фактот, Македонците беа сами пример од Грчката експанзија која расади колонии во многу места на медитеранскиот брег. Тие научија многу од нивните соседи-Тракијците, Фригијците и Илирите и во 650 г. п. н. е ги ставија нивните лекции во добра служба. Со прогонство и во некои случаји со уништување на претходните жители тие создадоа цврст блок на гркоговорни Македонци во Пиерија, Еордеја, Алмопија и Ботиеја, која беше во време на неволји скоро ненамалив минимум на македонската сила.“

N. G. L. Hammond. A History of Macedonia I (1972): p. 440

“Мора да се сетиме дека исто така Филип и Александар беа Грци, потомци на Хераклиј. Тие сакаа да бидат признаени од Грците како доброчинители на Грците.“

N. G L Hammond [1989] “Alexander The Great” p. 257

“Како Грк Александар се обидуваше да го смени со векови стариот курс на политиката на државите-градови од империјалистички партикуларизам и меѓусебна борба во федерален систем и експанзија према надвор во смисол на влијание, населување и трговија.“

N. G L Hammond [1989] “Alexander The Great” . p. 259

“Интензивните ископувања покажаа дека главнината од копното искуси инвазија од големи размери c. 2000-1700 п. н. е. . Последниот бран Грци, представени со нивниот предок Дорус, влегоа во Грција во вековите c. 1125 – c. 1025 при што нивниот дијалект беше дорски и северозапеден Грчки. Бидејќи дојдоа од подрачјата на Епир. изгледа веројатно. дека резервоарот на гркоговорните народи од кои оваа инвазија се прошири беше ситуиран c. 2000 п. н. е во Албанија и во западна и јужна Македонија. ”

Oxford Classical Dictionary. 2nd ed. (1970). s. v. ”Greece. ” by N. G. L. Hammond. p. 478”

“Религијата на самите Македонци беше хеленска како што е докажано со имињата на македонските месеци. Култовите на повеќето главни грчки божества се доволно потврдени за раниот период. “

Oxford Classical Dictionary. 2nd ed. (1970). s. v. “Macedonia. ” by N. G. L. Hammond. p. 634

“Филип беше роден како Грк од изразито аристократско, навистина од божествено потекло. Филип беше и Грк и Македонец, како што Демостен беше Грк и Атињанин“

Nicholas G. L. Hammond. ‘Philip of Macedon’ Duckworth Publishing. February 1998

Улрих Вилкен

Ulrich Wilcken. “Alexander the Great”. New York 1967

“Александар го представува целокупниот курс на грчкиот живот„
p. 2

“Александар ја превзеде како прва должност ослободувањето на грчките градови од Персијскиот јарем“
p. 80

“Секаде ослободувањето од персијскот владеење беше поздравено со ентузијазам и Александар беше прославуван како ослободител“
p. 91

“Неговата желба беше, како во неговите претходни освојувања да го поплочи патот за грчката култура“
p. 184

“На овој начин грчката технологија и наука беа применети на индијската почва, додека Александар ја покоруваше земјата“
p. 194

“Од тогаш тој ја следеше само својата втора цел, освојувањето на Азија за себеси и за грчката цивилизација„
Самите култни епитети на овие Птолемеиди. кои Египќаните со потешкотии ги репродуцираа во нивниот јазик, ни покажуваат дека култот на хеленистичките кралеви беше од чисто грчко потекло. ”
p. 276

“. . . така во средината на ориенталниот свет зе возвиши грчкиот полис, чии граѓани донесоа со себе си и продолжија да користат грчки јазик и религија, закон и општествени обичаји. ”
p. 299

“Така наложената од Александар идеја за ширење на грчкиот јазик на Истокот беше остварена со голем успех од неговите непосредни наследници во Азија и Европа. ”
p. 308

Бернард Рандал

Bernard Randall. “Alexander the Great: Macedonia King and Conqueror”. New York 2004

“Во тринаесет години од неговото владеење како крал Александар II од Македон, тој стана од владател на водечката земја во Грција до освојјувач на најголемата империја која светот ја виде. ”
p. 7

“Тој самиот веруваше дека е син на Зевс, кралот на грчките богови. ”
p. 7

“Тој го направи Египт и блискиот исток дел од грчкиот свет, и тој иницира ширења на грчките идеи и филозофија далеку вон Грција. ”
p. 8

“Додека Атињаните владееле со себеси како демократија, Македон беше се уште владеен со тип на монархија која ишчезна од другите градови држави со векови пред тоа. ”
p. 10

Јуџин Борза

“Macedonia Redux”, Eugene N. Borza, “The Eye Expanded: Life and the Arts in Greco-Roman Antiquity“, Frances B. Titchener and Richard F. Moorton, Jr., editors

“За време на средновековието и совремието, Македонија беше позната како балкански регион населен со етнички Грци, Албанци, Срби, Бугари, Евреи и Турци“

“Појавата на македонска националност се должи на заедничката македонска и бугарска борба против хеленизацијата. Со воспоставување на независна бугарска држава и Црква во 1870те, конфликтот доби нови моменти. До тоа време разликувањето помеѓу “Македонец“ и “Бугарин“ едвај да постоеше вон дијалектолошките разлики помеѓу стандардниот “источен“ бугaрски и тој што беше говорен во Македонија.“

“Современите Словени, и Бугари и Македонци, не можат да воспостават врска со Антиката, бидејќи Словените влегоа на Балканот векови по пропаста на античкото македонско кралство. Единствено најрадикалните словенски фракции-повеќето емигранти во Соединетите Држави, Канада и Австралија – се обидуваат да воспостават врска со антиката.“

“Македонците се новопојавен народ во потрага по минато кои би им помогнало да ја легитимизираат нивната неизвесна сегашност обидувајќи се да воспостават нивен единствен идентите во словенски свет доминиран историјски од Срби и Бугари.“

“Тешко е да се знае дали незивисна македонска држава би се појавила да Тито не го призна и подржи развојот на македонска народност како дел од неговата етнички организирана Македонија. Тој го стори тоа да се спротистави на Бугарија, која со векови имала историјски барања на подрачјето на запад до Охридското езеро и сегашната граница со Албанија.“

“Само наскоро успеавме да ги рашчистиме овие калливи води со разоткривање на демостенскиот корпус за она што е: ораторство дизајнирано да го опсени јавното мислење и со тоа да ја формулира јавната политика. Тоа недофатливо суштество, Вистината, секогаш е потчинето на Реториката: изјавите на Демостен не се вистинска историја на периодот отколку што се јавните изјави за политичарите во секое време.“

E.Borza, “On the shadows of Olympus…” p. 5-6

Томас Р. Мартин

Thomas R Martin. “Ancient Greece From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times”. Yale 2000

“Македонците имаа нивен јазик поврзан со грчкиот, но членовите кои го доминираа македонското општество рутински учеа да говорат грчки бидејќи тие мислеа за себеси и навистина за сите Македонци за Грци по крв. ”
p. 1

Робин У. Винкс

“Денес, научниците ги дебатираат ефектите од “хеленизацијата“-грчкото влијание-на домородната популација на грко-македонските кралства. Некои се залагаат дека грчките и домородните популации беа одвоени. Според ова гледиште. владеачката класа бепе составена скоро ексклузивно од Грко-Македонци, и грчки културни институции (како гимназијата или хеленските религиозни фестивали) имаа привлечност само за Грците, додека домородните традиции продолжија негибнати помеѓу домородците. ”

“The Ancient Mediterranean World: From the Stone Age to A. D. 600″
By Robin W Winks. Susan P Mattern-Parkes. page 105-106

Џонатан М. Хол

Jonathan M. Hall. “Ethnic identity in Greek antiquity”. Cambridge 2000

“. . . на Дорците исто така им се припишува воведувањето на “протогеометријска“ грнчарија, популарна низ Грција во 10-от век п. н. е. Нејзината линеарна декорација и претпочитање на поостри облици изгледа представува јасен контраст со LHIIIC садовите и Теодор Скит застапуваше дека е возможно да се бара нејзиното потекло и дифузија низ стилска анализа, особено на карактеристичниот концентричен кружен мотив, Скит застапуваше рана појава на овој мотив во Тесалија и Македонија од каде беше разнесуван спрема југ, и го прогласи неговото минување на сериите миграции кои ги донесоа Дорците на Пелопонез. ”

Џорџ Коквел

George Cawkwell. “Philip of Macedon”. London 1978

“Македонците беа Грци. Нивниот јазик беше грчкиот, ако се суди по нивните лични имиња и по имињата на месеците од нивниот календар. Македонските амбасадори можеа да се појават пред атинските собранија без да им требаат преведувачи. Во сите Демостенови закачки околу нивната цивилизација нема трага дека Македонците збореле друг јазик освен грчки. Но тоа беше посебен дијалект кој не беше веднаш разбирлив за другите Грци. “
p. 22-3

Фергус Милар

Fergus Millar. “The Roman Empire and its Neighbours”. 2nd ed. . London 1981

“Важноста придадена на Хадријановата институција е најдобро илустрирана со натпис од раниот трет век од Тесалоника во чест на локален магнат . Т. Аелиус Геминус Македо (т. е. Македонец). кој не само што држел магистратури и обезбедувал дрво за базиликата во неговиот град и бил империјален куратор во Аполонија, но бил и архон на Панхеленскиот конгрес во Атина“, свештеник на обожениот Хадријан и председател на осумнаесетите Панхеленски игри“.
p. 205-206

The Greek Language of Macedonian Inscriptions: Epigraphical Artifacts

Епиграфски артефакти саздани од Македонаца, древног и савременог грчког ентитета, од 5-ог века п.н.е. до 3-ег века н.е. Овај материјал, који на видеу представља само један мали део археолошких налаза који носе натписе и коју су створени од стране античких Македонаца је сведочанство о искључивом коришћењу грчког језика између њих. Од појединачних речи и малих натписа до већих палеографских споменика, ови артефакти су интегрални део хеленског наслеђа.

Епиграфски артефакти создадени од Македонците, древен и современ грчки ентитет, од 5 век п.н.е. до 3 век н.е.Овој материјал, кој на видеото представува само еден мал дел од археолошките наоди кои носат натписи и кои беа создадени од страна на античките Македонци е сведоштво на исклучивото ползување на грчкиот јазик помеѓу нив. Од единечни зборови и мали натписи до поголеми палеографски споменици, овие артифакти се интегрален дел од хеленското наследство

Epigraphical artifacts created by Macedonians, an ancient and modern Greek entity, from Vth century BCE to IIIth century CE. This material, which on this video represent only a tiny fraction of archaeological finds which bear inscriptions and which were authored by Ancient Macedonians, is a testimony to the exclusive usage of Greek language among them. From single words and small inscriptions to larger paleographic monuments, these artifacts are integral part of the Hellenic heritage.

The Pseudomacedonian Indoctrination at UKIM University in Skoplje

ukim2In relation to problem of Pseudomacedonian indoctrination, a particular importance is occupied by the system of university-grade education in FYROM. While the irredentist themes within textbooks and programs for primary and high education have been scrutinized and publicized, the form of education which is quite important through the fact that historians within FYROM’s national sciences are produced domestically with few exceptions, was left out from any serious analysis.

Skoplje’s public “St. Cyrill and Methodius” University (UKIM) via its Philosophical Faculty (FZF), country’s most important institution in the process of production of historians, classical philologists and archaeologist, most important professions dedicated to exploring and revealing the past, including the matters of ethnicity and cultural identity. Due to the fact that private research on matters of national identity regarding the genesis and ethnic anthropology of peoples historically present in FYROM is  forbidden by the 1996 Law for scientific-exploring activity (“zakon za naučno-istražuvačkata dejnost“), article 16, which reads:

“The approval (for performing public scientific work-V. G. ) can be given for all areas designated as a public interest in scientific-exploring activity, with the exception of scientific research in the area of historical and cultural identity of the Macedonian people and the nationalities which live in the Republic of Macedonia, defense and security. ”

Added to this draconian, totalitarian enslavement of free thought, designed to keep the state monopoly over the nationally important sphere of identity study is the fact that the state institutions, to which the aforementioned law gives a monopoly over the process are not only funded by the budget, but have their managers (“direktori”) appointed by decree. It is axiomatic that this configuration of the circumstances breeds conformism, inefficiency, rigidity and consequently, sustained dogmatism. Subservient to the politicians, university postgraduates remain firmly tied in Big Brother’s iron mold, having no chance to get support for projects outside the politically-imposed correct collectivist thinking. The political line is clear on this matter: a “Macedonian” ethnicity of a non-Greek type emergent in Balkan Neolithic period exists. It is completely culturally, anthropologically and linguistically in a category of its own. It is destined to dominate the ancient fatherland, partitioned in 1913 by the evil neighbors which had no ethnic and cultural presence in the region, nor was their action legitimate. This is the official, sacrosanct and all-pervading mythology of the young Balkan nation.

External scholars of Balkan affairs, classicists, archaeologists, byzantologists, slavists and all others focused on region’s culture, history and politics disagree firmly. Yet their voices of protest over the farce are not mentioned in FYROMian media. Their books, articles and other publicized works are not available in bookstores and public libraries in FYROM. Programs for study abroad are expensive in relation to local standard, at least for most students. Only few of those who study abroad take a curriculum in humanities. As a result, for anybody aspiring towards a carrier in history and for those who find this profession which offers little financial award, yet provides intellectual stimulus as few others, the only path is enrollment in UKIM. Neither the University of Monastiri/Bitolj nor  other private educational institution do offer programs in the science of historiography.

The FZF of UKIM issues a eclectic guideline for each curricula containing the University’s statute and regulations, practical general advice and a program, divided by study subjects. The program for each subject is left to the chair-holding professorship’s discretion, however the entire course is planned centrally. A brief review of the plan for four-year study of history as exposed in the UKIM’s current official guideline (“Priračnik-institut za istorija-nasoka arhivistika“ Skopje 2004) follows:

1. “History of Ancient Macedonians” is one of the 31 subjects during the program, studied in the first year. A tendency to separate Macedonian from general Greek history is immediately noticed. The section “Celi (lit. “Targets”) reads:
“Students should understand the historical processes (ethnogenesis, socio-economic relationships, the political system, the religion and the culture, as well as the contribution of the Ancient Macedonians to the human civilization) with the target of gathering a historicistic consciousness necessary for understanding of the contemporary (sic) historical processes  as well for the proper understanding of all types of sources which can be found among us”.

Apart from the usage of the word “ethnogenesis”, which is out of the place in relation to the phyllogenetical study of tribal and politically separate units within the same ethnic group, in this case the Hellenic one is puzzled by the usage of the phrase “sources. . [. . ]. . found among us”. Is this to be understood in terms that only historical sources-recognizing their primacy within the theoretical framework in the historiographic sources-only the quantitatively small part of Macedonian sources found in the southernmost parts of FYROM have any relevance whatsoever to the history of Ancient Macedonia and Macedonians? Regarding the statement that “the understanding of the contemporary historical processes” is the only reason why Ancient Macedonian history is studied today-so that one can be professionally equipped to cover the gaps of 900 years from Alexander the Great’s death to the arrival of Slavs and the subsequent gap of 1400 years to the first idea of separate “Macedonian” ethnicity with falsified abrogations-the observer finds unintentionally humorously, but truly expressed reality.

2. The list of basic bibliography (“osnovna literatura”) contains only 6 books, among which are:
Proeva, N. “Studii za antičkite Makedonci“ (“Studies about the Ancient Macedonians”), Skopje, 1997. This is rather strongly polemically-worded statement about the different nature of the Ancient Macedonian from the Greeks from the current holder of the chair at the faculty. Several highly specific properties of Ancient Macedonian language and the religious cult are used as a starting platform for deconstructionistic differentiation of Macedonians from Greeks over 300 pages. Similarly, both listed 1960’s studies by Fanoula Papazoglu, historian and classicist from Monastiri/Bitolj which spend most of her career in Belgrade (“Middle Balkan Tribes in Pre-Roman Times” and “History of the Hellenistic Period”) contain the typical for the era lack of definite statement on Macedonian ethnicity, and while extremely valuable in all other aspects, cannot be held as a source of direct knowledge about the issue.
Inclusion of the book “Demosthenes” by P. Carlie in FYROMian translation puts a too heavy spotlight on this protagonist of ancient History. The motive here is to put emphasis primarily on Demosthenes usage of anti-Macedonian rhetorics in his comment against the political clash between Macedonia of Phillip II and Athens for leadership in the Greek world.
The bibliographical sections lists 7 works by ancient authors translated in Serbian and Croatian language among which the only body of works translated in FYRO Macedonian language is-unsurprisingly-a collection of speeches by Demosthenes (Demosten, “Govori”, trans. Danica Čadikovska, Skopje 1995).

3. The Greek history is treated separately in the subject „History of the Old Age“ together with the cultures of the Fertile Crescent. Here, the influence of the discredited archaeological-historical paradigm Ex Lux Oriente formulated by the British Marxist Scholar Gordon Childe is visible. Out of 4 monographs mentioned in the guideline for the second part of the course Carlie’s biography of Demosthenes is mentioned again (!). Fixation with the ancient rhetorician by FYROMian scholars is obvious.

The blunt segregation of the Ancient Macedonian history from the general Hellenic one fortifies the impression in the student that these two entities should be viewed separately in an ethnological  sense. Left without a proper bibliographical guidance, the caricature of which contains mostly suitable collections of sources and politically-correct foreign monographs, the student is being mislead at the formative academic years. Overt usage of FYROMian and South-Slavic language books also raises suspicion. The rest of the program puts a heavy emphasis on the medieval and 19th/20th century history of the Geographic Macedonia (an ahistorical and geotechnical concept whose northern borders are set quite further than those of Macedonia proper). Furthermore, synthethic (in contrast with more topical) published material from the Communist era often carries not only the baggage of wrongful statement on the Macedonian problematic proper but employ a broad set of devices to fashion a monist (and thus fluid) materialistic-deterministic, economistic and quasipositivistic worldview , quite often laid out in a descriptive and didactic fashion. True knowledge about Macedonia, its development as a territorial and political concept, its Greek ethnological and anthropological character eludes the student. Tragically, this is the place where future generation of FYROMian historians, those patron-saints of ethnic identity in its modern and political context learn their craft. What was a world of their past, its idiosyncratic character left within confines of a hermetically sealed educational process grows in UKIM in a more elaborate, rich and detailed scheme. The interplay of awakened distant ages will, however , continue with its disharmonious, cacophonous sound , having no truthful meaning , in the next phase: creation of dogmatic and sanitized “truth” for internal purposes in a variety of genres: primary and secondary textbooks, lexicons, atlases, encyclopedias. These are widely available forms of expression against which most rigid standards of conservation within the dogma are set. Classic monographs and articles are products for which slightly more liberal circumstances for creation in the spirit of science and rigorous scholarship is in existence. But, even here, within the almost paramilitary structured state institutions, the difference is one of small quantity, not quality.

FYROMian writer, the Bulgarian nationalist Mladen Srbinovski called the neighborhood, where the State Archive, the s. c. MANU (“Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts”), the Institute for National History (INI) are located, “The institutional belly of Macedonism” in his essay “Turbo Makedonija” (“Turbomakedonija” in “Obedi ništožnost“, Skopje 1999). He could have added UKIM, too. Perhaps the  striking metaphor would have gained even greater potency.

Situated right to the bulevard “Aleksandar Makedonski”, UKIM, under the shell of gray brutalist architecture encloses the corridors of totalitarian misery, libraries of PC decrees disguised as literature and teaching halls where the “virtue” of conformism is forced with an iron hand of the Big Government. It is an institution that cannot in itself teach anything about truthfulness, self-discipline, aspiration towards excellence which are values through which any enthusiasm results in quality and productivity. For maximum efficiency, those FYROMians who cherish history as it is should strive toward autodidactism, mastery of several global languages and reliance on sources and non-FYROMian literature. Although UKIM is nominally autonomous, strong mechanisms of factual dependence to the government of FYROM in general, and on the actual Pseudomacedonian leadership set in particular are in existence, mutually reinforcing each other. Nevertheless, Skoplje’s university is bound to its mission which is cherished by all  institutions of its kind belonging to the European tradition: to stand above politics, to espouse principles leading to proliferation of science and increasing the sum of knowledge and the capability to act upon it.